The Valjean effect: Visceral states and cheating

Emotion. 2016 Sep;16(6):897-902. doi: 10.1037/emo0000158. Epub 2016 May 5.


Visceral states like thirst, hunger, and fatigue can alter motivations, predictions, and even memory. Across 3 studies, we demonstrate that such "hot" states can also shift moral standards and increase dishonest behavior. Compared to participants who had just eaten or who had not yet exercised, hungry and thirsty participants were more likely to behave dishonestly to win a prize. Consistent with the specificity of motivation that is characteristic of visceral states, participants were only more likely to cheat for a prize that could alleviate their current deprived state (such as a bottle of water). Interestingly, this increase in dishonest behavior did not seem to be driven by an increase in the perceived monetary value of the prize. (PsycINFO Database Record

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Deception*
  • Decision Making / ethics*
  • Fatigue / physiopathology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hunger / physiology*
  • Male
  • Morals
  • Motivation / ethics*
  • Thirst / physiology*
  • Young Adult