Immune recovery in HIV-infected patients after Candida esophagitis is impaired despite long-term antiretroviral therapy

AIDS. 2016 Jul 31;30(12):1923-33. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0000000000001126.


Objective: Candida esophagitis belongs to the most common AIDS-defining diseases; however, a comprehensive immune pathogenic concept is lacking.

Design: We investigated the immune status of 37 HIV-1-infected patients from the Swiss HIV cohort study at diagnosis of Candida esophagitis, 1 year before, 1 year later and after 2 years of suppressed HIV RNA. We compared these patients with three groups: 37 HIV-1-infected patients without Candida esophagitis but similar CD4 cell counts as the patients at diagnosis (advanced HIV group), 15 HIV-1-infected patients with CD4 cell counts higher than 500 cells/μl, CD4 cell nadirs higher than 350 cells/μl and suppressed HIV RNA under combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) (early cART group) and 20 healthy individuals.

Methods: We investigated phenotype, cytokine production and proliferative capacity of different immune cells by flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot.

Results: We found that patients with Candida esophagitis had nearly abolished CD4 cell proliferation in response to Candida albicans, significantly increased percentages of dysfunctional CD4 cells, significantly decreased cytotoxic natural killer cell counts and peripheral innate lymphoid cell counts and significantly reduced IFN-γ and IL-17 production compared with the early cART group and healthy individuals. Most of these defects remained for more than 2 years despite viral suppression. The advanced HIV group without opportunistic infection showed partly improved immune recovery.

Conclusion: Our data indicate that Candida esophagitis in HIV-1-infected patients is caused by an accumulation of multiple, partly Candida-specific immunological defects. Long-term immune recovery is impaired, illustrating that specific immunological gaps persist despite cART. These data also support the rationale for early cART initiation to prevent irreversible immune defects.

Publication types

  • Observational Study

MeSH terms

  • AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / immunology
  • AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / pathology*
  • Adult
  • Anti-Retroviral Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Candidiasis / immunology
  • Candidiasis / pathology*
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Cytokines / metabolism
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Esophagitis / immunology
  • Esophagitis / pathology*
  • Flow Cytometry
  • HIV Infections / complications
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy*
  • HIV Infections / pathology*
  • Humans
  • Immune Reconstitution*
  • Prospective Studies
  • T-Lymphocyte Subsets / immunology
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Anti-Retroviral Agents
  • Cytokines