Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a constellation of factors increasing the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer. MetS diagnosis is cumbersome and the precise diagnosis differs throughout the world. Efforts are underway to find MetS biomarkers that could all be analysed in a single blood sample. Here we review recent advances, including progress on circulating exosomes and microvesicles and their molecular contents, as well as DNA, RNAs, and proteins taken directly from blood samples. While additional research is now warranted to advance upon these findings, there is reason for optimising that such blood-based entities will be beneficial for MetS diagnosis and will help reduce risk of T2DM, CVD, and cancers, contributing both societal and economic benefit.
Keywords: biomarkers; exosomes; extracellular vesicles; metabolic syndrome; nucleic acids; proteins.
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