Concussion, or mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), affects millions of patients worldwide. Understanding the pathophysiology of TBI can help manage its repercussions. The brain is significantly altered immediately following mild TBI because of metabolic, hemodynamic, structural, and electrophysiologic changes. This process affects cognition and behavior and can leave the brain vulnerable for worse injury in the setting of repeat insult. This article is an update of our previously published review, reporting relevant and current studies from the bench to the bedside of mild TBI. Understanding the pathobiology can help prevent and treat mild TBI.
Keywords: Concussion; Molecular mechanisms; Pathophysiology; Traumatic brain injury.
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