The Molecular Pathophysiology of Concussive Brain Injury - an Update

Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2016 May;27(2):373-93. doi: 10.1016/j.pmr.2016.01.003.


Concussion, or mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), affects millions of patients worldwide. Understanding the pathophysiology of TBI can help manage its repercussions. The brain is significantly altered immediately following mild TBI because of metabolic, hemodynamic, structural, and electrophysiologic changes. This process affects cognition and behavior and can leave the brain vulnerable for worse injury in the setting of repeat insult. This article is an update of our previously published review, reporting relevant and current studies from the bench to the bedside of mild TBI. Understanding the pathobiology can help prevent and treat mild TBI.

Keywords: Concussion; Molecular mechanisms; Pathophysiology; Traumatic brain injury.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Acute Disease
  • Animals
  • Axons / pathology
  • Brain Concussion / diagnostic imaging*
  • Brain Concussion / metabolism*
  • Brain Concussion / physiopathology
  • Cerebrovascular Circulation
  • Chronic Disease
  • Diffusion Tensor Imaging
  • Glucose / metabolism
  • Glutamic Acid / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Mitochondria / metabolism
  • Pituitary Gland / physiopathology*
  • Recurrence


  • Glutamic Acid
  • Glucose