Histological and histochemical study of the protective role of rosemary extract against harmful effect of cell phone electromagnetic radiation on the parotid glands

Acta Histochem. 2016 Jun;118(5):478-85. doi: 10.1016/j.acthis.2016.04.010. Epub 2016 May 4.


Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are a class of non-ionizing radiation (NIR) that is emitted from mobile phone. It may have hazardous effects on parotid glands. So, we aimed to investigate the histological and histochemical changes of the parotid glands of rats exposed to mobile phone and study the possible protective role of rosemary against its harmful effect. Forty adult male albino rats were used in this study. They were classified into 4 equal groups. Group I (control), group II (control receiving rosemary), group III (mobile phone exposed group) and group IV (mobile exposed, rosemary treated group). Parotid glands were dissected out for histological and histochemical study. Moreover, measurement of oxidative stress markers; malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was done. The results of this study revealed that rosemary has protective effect through improving the histological and histochemical picture of the parotid gland in addition of its antioxidant effect. It could be concluded from the current study, that exposure of parotid gland of rat models to electromagnetic radiation of mobile phone resulted in structural changes at the level of light and electron microscopic examination which could be explained by oxidative stress effect of mobile phone. Rosemary could play a protective role against this harmful effect through its antioxidant activity.

Keywords: Histological examination; Mobile phone; Oxidative stress; Parotid gland; Rosemary.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology*
  • Cell Phone
  • Drug Evaluation, Preclinical
  • Male
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Parotid Gland / drug effects*
  • Parotid Gland / pathology
  • Parotid Gland / radiation effects
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Radiation Injuries, Experimental / drug therapy*
  • Radio Waves / adverse effects*
  • Rats
  • Rosmarinus / chemistry


  • Antioxidants
  • Plant Extracts