Providing evidence for use of Echinacea supplements in Hajj pilgrims for management of respiratory tract infections

Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2016 May;23:40-5. doi: 10.1016/j.ctcp.2016.03.001. Epub 2016 Mar 16.


Objective: To evaluate potential applicability of Echinacea use for management of respiratory tract infections in Hajj travelers.

Method: The PubMed database was explored with Mesh terms "Echinacea" and "Respiratory Tract Infections".

Results: A hundred journal articles were yielded but only 66 most relevant ones used for the review.

Conclusion: There is a considerable amount of evidence that shows effectiveness of Echinacea products in prevention and treatment of respiratory tract infections in this setting. Although there are some controversial findings, utilization of standardized products with adequate dose or combinations with other immune-stimulants in controlled and well-designed trials will be highly encouraging.

Keywords: Echinacea; Hajj; Pilgrims; Respiratory tract infections; Travelers.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Dietary Supplements*
  • Echinacea*
  • Holidays
  • Humans
  • Islam*
  • Plant Preparations* / adverse effects
  • Plant Preparations* / therapeutic use
  • Respiratory Tract Infections* / drug therapy
  • Respiratory Tract Infections* / prevention & control


  • Plant Preparations