Where are the Behavioral Sleep Medicine Providers and Where are They Needed? A Geographic Assessment

Behav Sleep Med. 2016 Nov-Dec;14(6):687-98. doi: 10.1080/15402002.2016.1173551. Epub 2016 May 9.


Although it is widely acknowledged that there are not enough clinicians trained in either Behavioral Sleep Medicine (BSM) in general or in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I) in specific, what is unclear is whether this problem is more acute in some regions relative to others. Accordingly, a geographic approach was taken to assess this issue. Using national directories as well as e-mail listservs (Behavioral Sleep Medicine group and Behavioral Treatment for Insomnia Roster), the present study evaluated geographic patterning of CBSM and BSM providers by city, state, and country. Overall, 88% of 752 BSM providers worldwide live in the United States (n = 659). Of these, 58% reside in 12 states with ≥ 20 providers (CA, NY, PA, IL, MA, TX, FL, OH, MI, MN, WA, and CO), and 19% reside in just 2 states (NY and CA). There were 4 states with no BSM providers (NH, HI, SD, and WY). Of the 167 U.S. cities with a population of > 150,000, 105 cities have no BSM providers. These results clearly suggest that a targeted effort is needed to train individuals in both the unserved and underserved areas.

MeSH terms

  • Behavioral Medicine* / organization & administration
  • Behavioral Medicine* / statistics & numerical data
  • Cities / statistics & numerical data
  • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy* / statistics & numerical data
  • Geographic Mapping*
  • Humans
  • Medically Underserved Area*
  • Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders / psychology
  • Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders / therapy*
  • Sleep Medicine Specialty / organization & administration*
  • Sleep Medicine Specialty / statistics & numerical data
  • United States / epidemiology
  • Workforce