Correction of a Technical Error in the Golf Swing: Error Amplification Versus Direct Instruction

J Mot Behav. Jul-Aug 2016;48(4):365-76. doi: 10.1080/00222895.2015.1102699. Epub 2016 May 9.


Performance errors drive motor learning for many tasks. The authors' aim was to determine which of two strategies, method of amplification of error (MAE) or direct instruction (DI), would be more beneficial for error correction during a full golfing swing with a driver. Thirty-four golfers were randomly assigned to one of three training conditions (MAE, DI, and control). Participants were tested in a practice session in which each golfer performed 7 pretraining trials, 6 training-intervention trials, and 7 posttraining trials; and a retention test after 1 week. An optoeletronic motion capture system was used to measure the kinematic parameters of each golfer's performance. Results showed that MAE is an effective strategy for correcting the technical errors leading to a rapid improvement in performance. These findings could have practical implications for sport psychology and physical education because, while practice is obviously necessary for improving learning, the efficacy of the learning process is essential in enhancing learners' motivation and sport enjoyment.

Keywords: coaching; feedback; performance; sport; technical error; technique analysis.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Athletic Performance / physiology*
  • Biomechanical Phenomena
  • Golf / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Learning
  • Male
  • Physical Education and Training / methods*
  • Young Adult