Anti-inflammatory effects of Citrus sinensis L., Citrus paradisi L. and their combinations

Pak J Pharm Sci. 2016 May;29(3):843-52.


Citrus bioflavonoids embrace a wide group of phenolic compounds effecting the production and scavenging of reactive oxygen species and the processes relating free radical-mediated injury. Keeping in view of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of Citrus sinensis and Citrus paradisi, present study was undertaken to explore the effects of C. sinensis (orange juice) and C. paradisi (grapefruit juice) at three different doses alone and their two combinations with the objective to examine the effects of these compounds in an experimental model of rat colitis induced by trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS). Hence biochemical parameters e.g. myeloperoxidase, alkaline phosphatase, C-reactive protein (CRP) and glutathione were assessed. Data entry and analysis was accomplished by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 17 and was presented as mean ± S.E.M with 95% confidence interval. Present result shows that these juices, mainly C. paradisi, may be efficacious for the management of inflammatory bowel disease. In acute colitis model, C. paradise encouraged a decrease in the extension of the lesion escorted by a decrease in the occurrence of diarrhea and reinstatement of the glutathione content. Related effects were produced by the administration of C. sinensis, which also prevented the myeloperoxidase and alkaline phosphatase actions in acute intestinal inflammatory process. The effect of the citrus juices on the inflammatory process may be associated to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, as revealed in present investigation. The favorable effects exerted were demonstrated both by histological and biochemical changes and were related with a progress in the colonic oxidative status.

MeSH terms

  • Alkaline Phosphatase / metabolism
  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / isolation & purification
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology*
  • Antioxidants / isolation & purification
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology
  • Biomarkers / metabolism
  • C-Reactive Protein / metabolism
  • Citrus paradisi / chemistry*
  • Citrus sinensis / chemistry*
  • Colitis / chemically induced
  • Colitis / metabolism
  • Colitis / pathology
  • Colitis / prevention & control*
  • Colon / drug effects*
  • Colon / metabolism
  • Colon / pathology
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Drug Therapy, Combination
  • Fruit
  • Fruit and Vegetable Juices*
  • Glutathione / metabolism
  • Inflammation Mediators / metabolism
  • Male
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects
  • Peroxidase / metabolism
  • Phytotherapy
  • Plant Extracts / isolation & purification
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Plants, Medicinal
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Trinitrobenzenesulfonic Acid


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Antioxidants
  • Biomarkers
  • Inflammation Mediators
  • Plant Extracts
  • Trinitrobenzenesulfonic Acid
  • C-Reactive Protein
  • Peroxidase
  • Alkaline Phosphatase
  • Glutathione