Brain damage in former association football players. An evaluation by cerebral computed tomography

Neuroradiology. 1989;31(1):44-8. doi: 10.1007/BF00342029.


Thirty-three former football players from the National Football Team of Norway were examined by cerebral computer tomography (CT). The CT studies, evaluated for brain atrophy, visually and by linear measurements compared two different normal materials. One third of the players were found to have central cerebral atrophy. It is concluded that the atrophy probably was caused by repeated small head injuries during the football play, mainly in connection with heading the ball.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Athletic Injuries / diagnostic imaging*
  • Atrophy
  • Brain / pathology
  • Brain Injuries / diagnostic imaging*
  • Brain Injuries / etiology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Soccer*
  • Sports*
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed*