Background: Trastuzumab, used to treat breast cancer overexpressing human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, may be cardiotoxic. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging with myocardial strain studies has been used to evaluate subclinical biventricular myocardial changes, however, its clinical utility during chemotherapy has not been evaluated.
Methods: The clinical outcomes, CMR and cardiac biomarkers of 9 women aged 62.3 ± 12.6 years with early or locally advanced breast cancer were evaluated at baseline, and at 3, 6 and 12 months after the initiation of trastuzumab.
Results: None of the patients developed heart failure or elevated serum cardiac biomarkers. Global left ventricular (LV) peak systolic longitudinal and circumferential strains were significantly decreased at 6 months (longitudinal strains, -21.1 ± 1.7% [baseline] vs. -19.5 ± 1.0% [6 months], p = 0.039, and circumferential strains, -23.4 ± 1.8% [baseline] vs. -21.6 ± 2.5% [6 months], p = 0.036). These changes were analogous to those observed in the LV ejection fraction. Right ventricular (RV) free wall peak systolic circumferential strains were decreased at 6 months (-20.9% ± 2.4% [baseline] vs. -19.1% ± 2.3% [6 months], p = 0.049), whereas RV longitudinal strains and ejection fraction remained unchanged. The LV longitudinal strain was the most reproducible of the 4 peak strain parameters.
Conclusions: The LV longitudinal and circumferential strains measured by CMR decreased during trastuzumab therapy, although their predictive value for later heart failure or association with RV parameters was not determined. These techniques may be a useful means of diagnosing and monitoring trastuzumab-related cardiotoxicity.
Keywords: breast cancer; cardiac magnetic resonance; cardiotoxicity; myocardial strain; trastuzumab.