Intracranial circulation: pulse-sequence considerations in three-dimensional (volume) MR angiography

Radiology. 1989 Jun;171(3):785-91. doi: 10.1148/radiology.171.3.2717753.


The technique and feasibility of magnetic resonance (MR) angiography of intracranial vessels were studied in 35 healthy volunteers. Variations in image orientation, repetition time (TR), and flip angle were evaluated to determine their effects on flow-related enhancement. Gradient modifications--including echo time (TE), motion compensation, bandwidth, and field of view--were also studied in an effort to reduce motion-induced phase shifts. Results indicated that a FISP (fast imaging with steady precession) sequence with a TR of 50 msec, TE of 15 msec, velocity compensation in the read and section-select directions, acceleration compensation in the read direction, anisotropic volume, and a 1.25-mm partition thickness produced three-dimensional angiographic MR images that were accurate and reproducible in the depiction of the major intracranial vessels. Difficulties with field of view, persistent signal void secondary to higher-order motion, and spatial resolution remain major problems requiring additional study.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Blood Flow Velocity
  • Cerebral Arteries / anatomy & histology*
  • Cerebrovascular Circulation*
  • Circle of Willis / anatomy & histology
  • Fourier Analysis
  • Humans
  • Image Enhancement / methods*
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods*
  • Reference Values
  • Time Factors