Between 1982 and 1986, the authors implanted silicone oil in 34 eyes with retinal detachment and proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) stages C-3 to D-3 caused by penetrating injuries. The retina had failed to reattach after initial vitrectomy, membrane peeling, and scleral buckling. Complete anatomic reattachment was achieved in 62%, partial reattachment in an additional 9%. Useful functional results were achieved in 68% of cases (visual acuity of 1/60 to 20/20). Postoperative complications included elevated intraocular pressure in 38% and progress of PVR with membrane formation under the silicone oil in 21% of the cases. Sixty-eight percent of the aphakic eyes developed band-shaped keratopathy. Because most of the eyes were aphakic, the authors do not report cataract incidence. In 15 eyes (44%) the silicone oil was removed. In 14 of these eyes the retina remains attached, in one eye silicone oil removal was followed by phthisis bulbi.