Probabilities of ADD/ADHD and Related Substance Use Among Canadian Adults

J Atten Disord. 2019 Oct;23(12):1454-1463. doi: 10.1177/1087054716647474. Epub 2016 May 14.


Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and probabilities of comorbidities between self-reported ADD/ADHD and smoking, alcohol binge drinking, and substance use disorders (SUDs) from a national Canadian sample. Method: Data were taken from the Public Use Microdata File of the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health (N = 17 311). The prevalence of (a) smoking, (b) alcohol binge drinking, and (c) SUDs was estimated among those with an ADD/ADHD diagnosis versus those without an ADD/ADHD diagnosis. Results: After controlling for potential socioeconomic and mental health covariates, self-reported ADD/ADHD acted as a significant predictor for group membership in the heaviest smoking, heaviest drinking, and heaviest drug usage categories. Conclusion: Individuals self-reporting a diagnosis of ADD/ADHD were found to have a significantly higher likelihood of engaging in smoking and alcohol binge drinking, and were more likely to meet criteria for SUDs than individuals not reporting an ADD/ADHD diagnosis.

Keywords: ADD/ADHD; adult; alcohol binge drinking; smoking; substance use disorders.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Alcohol Drinking
  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity* / epidemiology
  • Canada / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Prevalence
  • Smoking
  • Substance-Related Disorders* / epidemiology