Elevated circulating level of a cytokine, pancreatic-derived factor, is associated with metabolic syndrome components in a Chinese population

J Diabetes Investig. 2016 Jul;7(4):581-6. doi: 10.1111/jdi.12437. Epub 2015 Nov 14.


Aims/introduction: Pancreatic-derived factor (PANDER) is an important factor involved in obesity, glucose intolerance and abnormal lipid metabolism in animals. Nevertheless, the relationship between PANDER and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in humans has not yet been reported.

Materials and methods: To determinate the relationship between PANDER and MetS components, 212 individuals aged between 40 and 65 years were recruited. Fasting plasma PANDER and other variables were measured. Correlations of plasma PANDER and other variables were carried out. Plasma PANDER level was compared in participants with no metabolic components and those with any metabolic components, as well as in normal glucose tolerance, impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus participants.

Results: In all the participants, there were 65 participants in the no metabolic components group and 147 participants in the any metabolic components group. Plasma PANDER level was increased with the number of MetS components (P < 0.05) and correlated with metabolic score (r = 0. 529, P < 0.001). In addition, plasma PANDER significantly correlated with fasting plasma glucose (r = 0.187, P = 0.046), 2-h plasma glucose (r = 0.195, P = 0.035), homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function (r = -0.191, P = 0.039), triglyceride (r = 0.305, P = 0.001) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = -0.333, P < 0.001). Using multivariable logistic regression analysis, circulating PANDER was associated with an increased risk ratio of impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes mellitus (odds ratio 2.22, 95% confidence interval 1.15-4.42, P = 0.018) after adjustment of the other possible confounders.

Conclusions: Circulating level of PANDER in relation to the accumulation in MetS suggested that persons with elevated levels of PANDER were associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome.

Keywords: Impaired glucose tolerance; Metabolic syndrome; Pancreatic-derived factor.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Asian People
  • China / epidemiology
  • Cytokines / blood*
  • Diabetes Complications / blood
  • Diabetes Complications / epidemiology
  • Female
  • Glucose Intolerance / blood
  • Glucose Intolerance / complications
  • Glucose Intolerance / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Metabolic Syndrome / blood*
  • Metabolic Syndrome / complications
  • Metabolic Syndrome / epidemiology
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasm Proteins / blood*


  • Cytokines
  • FAM3B protein, human
  • Neoplasm Proteins