Daily breakfast consumption is a common eating behaviour among people who have maintained their weight loss after weight-loss management. However, there is not a precise definition for breakfast in the literature. The purpose of this study was to investigate potential associations between breakfast consumption (based on several definitions) and weight-loss maintenance, as well as to explore differences in breakfast quality between individuals who managed to maintain part of the weight loss and in those who regained weight loss. The study sample consisted of 354 participants of the MedWeight study (age: 32 (sd 10) years, 61 % women) who had lost ≥10 % of their initial body weight and either maintained the loss for ≥1 year (maintainers, n 257) or regained weight loss (regainers, n 97). Participants completed online questionnaires and reported their dietary intake through two telephone 24-h recalls. Breakfast consumption was evaluated using twelve different definitions. The analysis indicated that breakfast consumption was associated with weight-loss maintenance only in men, when using self-reported breakfast consumption or the following breakfast definitions: (1) the first eating episode consumed at home and (2) the first eating episode consumed at home excluding caffeinated drinks. This association remained statistically significant even after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Thus, breakfast, the first eating episode of the day, when consumed at home, may be protective against weight regaining.
Keywords: Breakfast consumption; Meal patterns; Obesity; Weight-loss maintenance.