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Fusarium Toxins in Cereals: Occurrence, Legislation, Factors Promoting the Appearance and Their Management


Fusarium Toxins in Cereals: Occurrence, Legislation, Factors Promoting the Appearance and Their Management

Davide Ferrigo et al. Molecules.


Fusarium diseases of small grain cereals and maize cause significant yield losses worldwide. Fusarium infections result in reduced grain yield and contamination with mycotoxins, some of which have a notable impact on human and animal health. Regulations on maximum limits have been established in various countries to protect consumers from the harmful effects of these mycotoxins. Several factors are involved in Fusarium disease and mycotoxin occurrence and among them environmental factors and the agronomic practices have been shown to deeply affect mycotoxin contamination in the field. In the present review particular emphasis will be placed on how environmental conditions and stress factors for the crops can affect Fusarium infection and mycotoxin production, with the aim to provide useful knowledge to develop strategies to prevent mycotoxin accumulation in cereals.

Keywords: Fusarium disease; Fusarium toxins; mycotoxin management; mycotoxin regulation.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


Figure 1
Figure 1
Chemical structure of the main Fusarium mycotoxins. (A) Trichothecenes; (B) Zearalenone; (C) Fumonisins; OAc = acetyl function; OIsoval = isovalerate function.

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