Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
Review
, 21 (5)

Fusarium Toxins in Cereals: Occurrence, Legislation, Factors Promoting the Appearance and Their Management

Affiliations
Review

Fusarium Toxins in Cereals: Occurrence, Legislation, Factors Promoting the Appearance and Their Management

Davide Ferrigo et al. Molecules.

Abstract

Fusarium diseases of small grain cereals and maize cause significant yield losses worldwide. Fusarium infections result in reduced grain yield and contamination with mycotoxins, some of which have a notable impact on human and animal health. Regulations on maximum limits have been established in various countries to protect consumers from the harmful effects of these mycotoxins. Several factors are involved in Fusarium disease and mycotoxin occurrence and among them environmental factors and the agronomic practices have been shown to deeply affect mycotoxin contamination in the field. In the present review particular emphasis will be placed on how environmental conditions and stress factors for the crops can affect Fusarium infection and mycotoxin production, with the aim to provide useful knowledge to develop strategies to prevent mycotoxin accumulation in cereals.

Keywords: Fusarium disease; Fusarium toxins; mycotoxin management; mycotoxin regulation.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Chemical structure of the main Fusarium mycotoxins. (A) Trichothecenes; (B) Zearalenone; (C) Fumonisins; OAc = acetyl function; OIsoval = isovalerate function.

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 24 PubMed Central articles

See all "Cited by" articles

References

    1. Logrieco A., Mulè G., Moretti A., Bottalico A. Toxigenic Fusarium species and mycotoxins associated with maize Ear Rot in Europe. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 2002;108:597–609. doi: 10.1023/A:1020679029993. - DOI
    1. Van der Lee T., Zhang H., van Diepeningen A., Waalwijk C. Biogeography of Fusarium graminearum species complex and chemotypes: A review. Food Addit. Contam. A. 2015;32:453–460. doi: 10.1080/19440049.2014.984244. - DOI - PMC - PubMed
    1. Placinta C., D’Mello J.P., Macdonald A.M. A review of worldwide contamination of cereal grains and animal feed with Fusarium mycotoxins. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 1999;78:21–37. doi: 10.1016/S0377-8401(98)00278-8. - DOI
    1. Nganje W.E., Bangsund D.A., Leistritz F.L., Wilson W.W., Tiapo N.M. Regional economic impacts of Fusarium Head Blight in wheat and barley. Appl. Econ. Perspect. Policy. 2004;26:332–347. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9353.2004.00183.x. - DOI
    1. Munkvold G.P. Epidemiology of Fusarium diseases and their mycotoxins in maize ears. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 2003;109:705–713. doi: 10.1023/A:1026078324268. - DOI
Feedback