The molecular mechanisms of targeted proteolysis in archaea are poorly understood, yet they may have deep evolutionary roots shared with the ubiquitin-proteasome system of eukaryotic cells. Here, we demonstrate in archaea that TBP2, a TATA-binding protein (TBP) modified by ubiquitin-like isopeptide bonds, is phosphorylated and targeted for degradation by proteasomes. Rapid turnover of TBP2 required the functions of UbaA (the E1/MoeB/ThiF homolog of archaea), AAA ATPases (Cdc48/p97 and Rpt types), a type 2 JAB1/MPN/MOV34 metalloenzyme (JAMM/MPN+) homolog (JAMM2), and 20S proteasomes. The ubiquitin-like protein modifier small archaeal modifier protein 2 (SAMP2) stimulated the degradation of TBP2, but SAMP2 itself was not degraded. Analysis of the TBP2 fractions that were not modified by ubiquitin-like linkages revealed that TBP2 had multiple N termini, including Met1-Ser2, Ser2, and Met1-Ser2(p) [where (p) represents phosphorylation]. The evidence suggested that the Met1-Ser2(p) form accumulated in cells that were unable to degrade TBP2. We propose a model in archaea in which the attachment of ubiquitin-like tags can target proteins for degradation by proteasomes and be controlled by N-terminal degrons. In support of a proteolytic mechanism that is energy dependent and recycles the ubiquitin-like protein tags, we find that a network of AAA ATPases and a JAMM/MPN+ metalloprotease are required, in addition to 20S proteasomes, for controlled intracellular proteolysis.
Importance: This study advances the fundamental knowledge of signal-guided proteolysis in archaea and sheds light on components that are related to the ubiquitin-proteasome system of eukaryotes. In archaea, the ubiquitin-like proteasome system is found to require function of an E1/MoeB/ThiF homolog, a type 2 JAMM/MPN+ metalloprotease, and a network of AAA ATPases for the targeted destruction of proteins. We provide evidence that the attachment of the ubiquitin-like protein is controlled by an N-terminal degron and stimulates proteasome-mediated proteolysis.
Copyright © 2016 Fu et al.