Background: The risks of proteinuria and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in adults who regularly have short sleep duration (short sleepers) are controversial. The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the effects of short sleep duration on proteinuria and CKD.
Methods: A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from the inception of the databases through November 2015. Studies that reported relative risks, odd ratios or hazard ratios comparing the risks of proteinuria and CKD in short sleepers were included. Pooled risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed utilizing a random-effect, generic inverse variance method.
Results: Six observational studies with 252 075 individuals and three observational studies with 37 197 individuals were included in the analyses to assess the risks of CKD and proteinuria in short sleepers, respectively. The pooled RR of CKD in short sleepers was 1.51 (95% CI, 0.99-2.55). When meta-analysis was restricted only to studies with adjusted analysis for confounders assessing the risk of CKD in short sleepers, the pooled RR of CKD was 1.54 (95% CI, 0.80-2.95). The pooled RR of proteinuria in short sleepers was 1.47 (95% CI, 1.26-1.72).
Conclusions: Despite the lack of significant association between short sleep duration and CKD, our meta-analysis suggests a potential association between short sleep duration and proteinuria, a surrogate marker for kidney disease progression. Future study is required to investigate if reversal of short sleep helps reduce proteinuria.
Keywords: chronic kidney disease; proteinuria; short sleep; sleep; sleep duration.
© The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.