Cre-dependent DREADD (Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs) mice

Genesis. 2016 Aug;54(8):439-46. doi: 10.1002/dvg.22949. Epub 2016 Jun 3.


DREADDs, designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs, are engineered G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) which can precisely control GPCR signaling pathways (for example, Gq, Gs, and Gi). This chemogenetic technology for control of GPCR signaling has been successfully applied in a variety of in vivo studies, including in mice, to remotely control GPCR signaling, for example, in neurons, glia cells, pancreatic β-cells, or cancer cells. In order to fully explore the in vivo applications of the DREADD technology, we generated hM3Dq and hM4Di strains of mice which allow for Cre recombinase-mediated restricted expression of these pathway-selective DREADDs. With the many Cre driver lines now available, these DREADD lines will be applicable to studying a wide array of research and preclinical questions. genesis 54:439-446, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Keywords: G protein-coupled receptors; GsD; chemogenetic; hM3Dq; hM4Di.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Gene Targeting / methods*
  • Integrases / genetics
  • Ligands
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Protein Binding
  • Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / metabolism*


  • Ligands
  • Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled
  • Cre recombinase
  • Integrases