Outbreak of IMP-producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacter gergoviae among kidney transplant recipients

J Antimicrob Chemother. 2016 Sep;71(9):2577-85. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkw165. Epub 2016 May 19.


Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate a prolonged outbreak of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacter gergoviae (CREG) involving kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) between 2009 and 2014.

Methods: A case-control study was undertaken. Controls (n = 52) were selected from CREG-negative KTRs. Surveillance cultures for CREG were collected weekly. Colonization was defined as isolation of CREG from surveillance samples or from clinical specimens, with no evidence of infection. We also investigated infection control practices at the facility.

Results: Of 26 identified cases, 13 had had no known contact with another CREG-positive patient before the first positive culture. Seven patients (27%) developed infection. The site most often colonized was the urinary tract. During the study period two clusters were identified, one in 2009 and another in 2013-14. DNA sequencing revealed blaIMP-1 in all CREG tested. No environmental or hand cultures tested positive for CREG. An audit of infection control practices detected flaws in the handling and cleaning of urinary tract devices. Multivariate analysis identified advanced age, ureteral stent use, retransplantation and male gender as risk factors for CREG acquisition.

Conclusions: An outbreak among KTRs caused by an unusual species of MDR bacteria may have resulted from a common source of contamination related to urinary tract devices.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology*
  • Carbapenems / pharmacology*
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Disease Outbreaks*
  • Enterobacter / enzymology*
  • Enterobacter / isolation & purification
  • Enterobacteriaceae Infections / epidemiology*
  • Enterobacteriaceae Infections / microbiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Kidney Transplantation
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA
  • Transplant Recipients
  • Urinary Tract Infections / epidemiology
  • Urinary Tract Infections / microbiology
  • Young Adult
  • beta-Lactam Resistance*
  • beta-Lactamases / genetics
  • beta-Lactamases / metabolism*


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Carbapenems
  • beta-Lactamases