In vitro and in vivo action of Piptadenia viridiflora (Kunth) Benth against Haemonchus contortus in sheep

Vet Parasitol. 2016 Jun 15;223:43-9. doi: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2016.04.002. Epub 2016 Apr 4.


Anthelminthic resistant populations of Haemonchus contortus are a major problem in sheep rearing, but plant extracts may offer viable alternative treatments. In our preliminary studies, Piptadenia viridiflora was frequently selected by sheep grazing in the Cerrado. The present research evaluated its in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity. The HPLC chromatograms of P. viridiflora aqueous extract (AE) and ethanolic extract (EE) showed the presence of flavonoids. The total condensed tannin (proanthocyanidin) was 0.2 and 1.01% in AE and EE, respectively. In an egg hatching inhibition (EHI) test, the LC90 of AE was 2.4mg/mL, and, of EE, was 2.1mg/mL. After tannin extraction, higher EHI and lower LC90 were observed. In a larval development inhibition test, the LC90 of AE was 13.66mg/g of fecal culture. The highest dose of AE administered to mice (203.0mg/kg bw) was well tolerated, suggesting low toxicity. In vivo, AE was orally administered to lambs at 283mg/kg bw, and, at weeks one, two, and three post-treatment, the mean fecal egg count (FEC) was significantly lower than in untreated lambs (P<0.05). Blood parameters were normal and similar in untreated and treated sheep. For all lamb groups, the mean total serum protein was significantly higher at week two post-treatment than at other evaluated periods (P<0.05). Piptadenia viridiflora extracts had low condensed tannin content and exhibited high anthelminthic efficacy in vitro and significantly reduced FEC. Tannins were not shown to be the principal components affecting EHI, hence it is necessary to isolate and characterize the principal active P. viridiflora compounds, and to assess their possible synergism.

Keywords: Blood parameters; Brazilian savanna; Plant extracts; Semiarid; Sheep; Toxicity.

Publication types

  • Controlled Clinical Trial

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anthelmintics / adverse effects
  • Anthelmintics / chemistry
  • Anthelmintics / therapeutic use*
  • Fabaceae / chemistry*
  • Haemonchiasis / drug therapy
  • Haemonchiasis / veterinary*
  • Haemonchus / drug effects*
  • Ivermectin / therapeutic use
  • Levamisole / therapeutic use
  • Mice
  • Ovum / drug effects
  • Plant Extracts / adverse effects
  • Plant Extracts / chemistry
  • Plant Extracts / therapeutic use*
  • Plant Leaves / chemistry
  • Sheep
  • Sheep Diseases / drug therapy
  • Sheep Diseases / parasitology*
  • Toxicity Tests


  • Anthelmintics
  • Plant Extracts
  • Levamisole
  • Ivermectin