Biochemical and neuropathological effects of exposure to a high dose regimen of methamphetamine were evaluated in rhesus monkeys approximately 4 years after the last drug injection. Concentrations of dopamine and serotonin in caudate were below control levels as were concentrations of serotonin in several other brain regions. These changes were more severe in a monkey that was exposed twice to the drug regimen. A decrease in caudate synaptosomal uptake of both neurotransmitters as well as neuropathological changes were evident in that monkey. Although it is possible that partial recovery occurred, these results strongly suggest that methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity may be permanent.