Cyanoacrylate closure of incompetent great, small and accessory saphenous veins without the use of post-procedure compression: Initial outcomes of a post-market evaluation of the VenaSeal System (the WAVES Study)

Vascular. 2017 Apr;25(2):149-156. doi: 10.1177/1708538116651014. Epub 2016 Jul 9.


Purpose Cyanoacrylate closure of the great saphenous vein with the VenaSeal™ Closure System is a relatively new modality. Studies have been limited to moderate-sized great saphenous veins and some have mandated postoperative compression stockings. We report the results of a prospective study of cyanoacrylate closure for the treatment of great saphenous vein, small saphenous veins, and/or accessory saphenous veins up to 20 mm in diameter. Methods Fifty subjects with symptomatic great saphenous vein, small saphenous veins, and/or accessory saphenous veins incompetence were each treated at a single session. Compression stockings were not used post-procedure. Subjects returned to clinic at week 1 and again at one month. Post-procedure evaluations were performed at seven days and one month and included numerical pain rating score, revised venous clinical severity score, the Aberdeen Varicose Vein Questionnaire score, and time to return to work and normal activities. Duplex ultrasound was performed at each visit. Findings Procedural pain was mild (numerical pain rating scale 2.2 ± 1.8). All treated veins (48 great saphenous vein, 14 accessory saphenous veins, and 8 small saphenous veins) had complete closure by duplex ultrasound at seven days and one month. Mean time to return to work and normal activities was 0.2 ± 1.1 and 2.4 ± 4.1 days, respectively. The revised venous clinical severity score was improved to 1.8 ± 1.4 ( p < .001) and Aberdeen Varicose Vein Questionnaire score to 8.9 ± 6.6 ( p < .001) at one month. Phlebitis in the treatment area or side branches occurred in 10 subjects (20%) and completely resolved in all but one subject (2%) by one month; 98% of subjects were "completely" or "somewhat" satisfied, and 2% "unsatisfied" with the procedure at one month, despite the protocol disallowance of concomitant side branch treatment. Conclusions Cyanoacrylate closure is safe and effective for the treatment of one or more incompetent saphenous or accessory saphenous veins. Closure rates were high even in the absence of the use of compression stockings or side branch treatment. Time back to work or normal activities was short and improvements in venous severity scores and QOL were significant, comparing favorably with alternative treatment methods.

Keywords: Cyanoacrylate; chronic venous insufficiency; saphenous veins; varicose veins.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Cyanoacrylates / administration & dosage*
  • Cyanoacrylates / adverse effects
  • Endovascular Procedures / adverse effects
  • Endovascular Procedures / instrumentation*
  • Equipment Design
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Linear Models
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Pain Measurement
  • Patient Satisfaction
  • Product Surveillance, Postmarketing
  • Prospective Studies
  • Recovery of Function
  • Return to Work
  • Saphenous Vein* / diagnostic imaging
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Time Factors
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex
  • Varicose Veins / diagnostic imaging
  • Varicose Veins / therapy*
  • Vascular Closure Devices*
  • Venous Insufficiency / diagnostic imaging
  • Venous Insufficiency / therapy*
  • Washington


  • Cyanoacrylates