Background: Non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics with end-stage renal disease have a lower risk for death than non-Hispanic whites, but data for racial/ethnic variation in cardiovascular outcomes for non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease are limited.
Study design: Prospective cohort.
Setting & participants: 3,785 adults with entry estimated glomerular filtration rates of 20 to 70mL/min/1.73m(2) enrolled in the CRIC (Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort) Study.
Predictors: Race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic).
Outcomes: Cardiovascular outcomes (atherosclerotic events [myocardial infarction, stroke, or peripheral arterial disease] and heart failure) and a composite of each cardiovascular outcome or all-cause death.
Measurements: Multivariable Cox proportional hazards.
Results: During a median follow-up of 6.6 years, we observed 506 atherosclerotic events, 551 heart failure events, and 692 deaths. In regression analyses, there were no significant differences in atherosclerotic events among the 3 racial/ethnic groups. In analyses stratified by clinical site, non-Hispanic blacks had a higher risk for heart failure events (HR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.29-1.95), which became nonsignificant after adjustment for demographic factors and baseline kidney function. In contrast, Hispanics had similar risk for heart failure events as non-Hispanic whites. In analyses stratified by clinical site, compared with non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks were at similar risk for atherosclerotic events or death. However, after further adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, medications, and mineral metabolism markers, non-Hispanic blacks had 17% lower risk for the outcome (HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.69-0.99) than non-Hispanic whites, whereas there was no significant association with Hispanic ethnicity.
Limitations: Hispanics were largely recruited from a single center, and the study was underpowered to evaluate the association between Hispanic ethnicity and mortality.
Conclusions: There were no significant racial/ethnic differences in adjusted risk for atherosclerotic or heart failure outcomes. Future research is needed to better explain the reduced risk for atherosclerotic events or death in non-Hispanic blacks compared with non-Hispanic whites.
Keywords: CRIC (Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort); Hispanic; Hispanic CRIC; Race; atherosclerotic cardiovascular events; dialysis; end-stage renal disease (ESRD); ethnicity; heart failure; racial disparities; racial/ethnic variation; survival paradox.
Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.