High Femoral Anteversion Is Related to Femoral Trochlea Dysplasia

Arthroscopy. 2016 Nov;32(11):2295-2299. doi: 10.1016/j.arthro.2016.03.023. Epub 2016 May 18.


Purpose: To investigate the possible relation between femoral anteversion (AV) and trochlear morphology.

Methods: Among 560 available lower-limb computed tomography (CT) scans, those with previous fracture, arthroplasty, or osteotomy were excluded and 40 cases were randomly selected. The following 4 lines were determined from the CT scans: 1 through the center of the femoral head and neck; 1 through the lesser trochanter and the center of the femoral shaft; 1 as a tangent to the dorsal part of the distal femur, just above the gastrocnemius insertion; and 1 as a tangent to the posterior condyles. Between the respective lines, the following parameters of femoral AV were determined: (1) total AV, (2) proximal AV, (3) diaphyseal AV, and (4) distal AV. Trochlea parameters were determined from 2 separate axial CT slices (proximal trochlea and 5 mm farther distally): trochlea height (medial, central, lateral), transverse trochlea shift, trochlea depth, sulcus angle, lateral trochlea slope, and Dejour trochlea type. To prove or disprove our study hypothesis, a correlation analysis was performed between the variables of AV and trochlear morphology.

Results: The total AV was significantly correlated with the trochlea parameters trochlea depth (P = .032), sulcus angle (P = .05), and lateral trochlea slope (P = .001). The diaphyseal AV was significantly correlated with the sulcus angle (P = .009). The distal AV showed significant correlations with medial, central, and lateral trochlea height (.005 <P < .032) and with Dejour trochlea type (P = .043).

Conclusions: The morphology of the trochlea is significantly related to femoral AV. Increased AV is associated with a flatter, more dysplastic trochlea. This was particularly true for AV located at the distal femur.

Level of evidence: Level III, diagnostic study of nonconsecutive patients.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Bone Anteversion / diagnostic imaging*
  • Female
  • Femur / abnormalities*
  • Femur / diagnostic imaging
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Multidetector Computed Tomography
  • Patella / abnormalities*
  • Patella / diagnostic imaging
  • Retrospective Studies