Multiple sclerosis is presumed to be an inflammatory autoimmune disease, which is characterized by lesion formation in the central nervous system (CNS) resulting in cognitive and motor impairment. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a useful animal model of MS, because it is also characterized by lesion formation in the CNS, motor impairment and is also driven by autoimmune and inflammatory reactions. One of the EAE models is induced with a peptide derived from the myelin oligodendrocyte protein (MOG)35-55 in mice. The EAE mice develop a progressive disease course. This course is divided into three phases: the preclinical phase (day 0 - 9), the disease onset (day 10 - 11) and the acute phase (day 12 - 14). MS and EAE are induced by autoreactive T cells that infiltrate the CNS. These T cells secrete chemokines and cytokines which lead to the recruitment of further immune cells. Therefore, the immune cell distribution in the spinal cord during the three disease phases was investigated. To highlight the time point of the disease at which the activation/proliferation/accumulation of T cells, B cells and monocytes starts, the immune cell distribution in lymph nodes, spleen and blood was also assessed. Furthermore, the levels of several cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-23, TNFα, IFNγ) in the three disease phases were determined, to gain insight into the inflammatory processes of the disease. In conclusion, the data provide an overview of the functional profile of immune cells during EAE pathology.