Gibberellic Acid: A Key Phytohormone for Spikelet Fertility in Rice Grain Production

Int J Mol Sci. 2016 May 23;17(5):794. doi: 10.3390/ijms17050794.


The phytohormone gibberellic acid (GA) has essential signaling functions in multiple processes during plant development. In the "Green Revolution", breeders developed high-yield rice cultivars that exhibited both semi-dwarfism and altered GA responses, thus improving grain production. Most studies of GA have concentrated on germination and cell elongation, but GA also has a pivotal role in floral organ development, particularly in stamen/anther formation. In rice, GA signaling plays an important role in spikelet fertility; however, the molecular genetic and biochemical mechanisms of GA in male fertility remain largely unknown. Here, we review recent progress in understanding the network of GA signaling and its connection with spikelet fertility, which is tightly associated with grain productivity in cereal crops.

Keywords: gibberellin signaling; grain productivity; rice; spikelet fertility; stamen/anther development.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Crops, Agricultural / growth & development
  • Fertility
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
  • Germination
  • Gibberellins / biosynthesis*
  • Oryza / growth & development*
  • Plant Growth Regulators / biosynthesis*
  • Plant Proteins / metabolism*
  • Signal Transduction


  • Gibberellins
  • Plant Growth Regulators
  • Plant Proteins
  • gibberellic acid