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Clinical Trial
. 2016 May 23;8(5):132.
doi: 10.3390/nu8050132.

Effect of Chocolate and Yerba Mate Phenolic Compounds on Inflammatory and Oxidative Biomarkers in HIV/AIDS Individuals

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Free PMC article
Clinical Trial

Effect of Chocolate and Yerba Mate Phenolic Compounds on Inflammatory and Oxidative Biomarkers in HIV/AIDS Individuals

Aline A Petrilli et al. Nutrients. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Flavonoids in cocoa and yerba mate have a beneficial role on inflammation and oxidative disorders. Their effect on HIV individuals has not been studied yet, despite the high cardiovascular risk of this population. This study investigated the role of cocoa and yerba mate consumption on oxidative and inflammatory biomarkers in HIV+ individuals. A cross-over, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted in 92 individuals on antiretroviral therapy for at least six months and at viral suppression. Participants were randomized to receive either 65 g of chocolate or chocolate-placebo or 3 g of yerba mate or mate-placebo for 15 days each, alternating by a washout period of 15 days. At baseline, and at the end of each intervention regimen, data regarding anthropometry, inflammatory, oxidative and immunological parameters were collected. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, lipid profile, white blood cell profile and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were assessed. There was a difference between mean concentrations of HDL-c (ANOVA; p ≤ 0.05) among the different regimens: dark chocolate, chocolate-placebo, yerba mate and mate-placebo. When a paired Student t-test was used for comparisons between mean HDL-c at baseline and after each regimen, the mean concentration of HDL-c was higher after supplementation with dark chocolate (p = 0.008).

Keywords: HIV/AIDS; chocolate; inflammation; oxidative stress; polyphenols; yerba mate.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Flow diagram of the clinical trial.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Bar graphs of inflammatory and oxidative variables of individuals with HIV/AIDS undergoing antiretroviral therapy at baseline and after receiving the different supplements (n* = 92) ANOVA: P1, comparison of means between the four supplements. Bonferroni modified t-test: P2, dark chocolate versus yerba mate; P3, dark chocolate versus placebo-mate. Paired Student t-test: P4, baseline versus dark chocolate. hs-CRP, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein; TBARS, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; HDL-c, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. n*: Fibrinogen (placebo-chocolate, n = 90, yerba mate, n = 89, placebo-mate, n = 89); neutrophils (yerba mate, n = 91) and monocytes (yerba mate, n = 91).

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