Two-year follow-up of a primary care-based intervention to prevent and manage childhood obesity: the High Five for Kids study

Pediatr Obes. 2017 Jun;12(3):e24-e27. doi: 10.1111/ijpo.12141. Epub 2016 May 27.


Background: The obesity epidemic has spared no age group, even young infants. Most childhood obesity is incident by the age of 5 years, making prevention in preschool years a priority.

Objective: To examine 2-year changes in age- and sex-specific BMI z-scores and obesity-related behaviours among 441 of the 475 originally recruited participants in High Five for Kids, a cluster randomized controlled trial in 10 paediatric practices.

Methods: The intervention included a more intensive 1-year intervention period (four in-person visits and two phone calls) followed by a less intensive 1-year maintenance period (two in-person visits) among children who were overweight or obese and age 2-6 years at enrolment. The five intervention practices restructured care to manage these children including motivational interviewing and educational modules targeting television viewing and intakes of fast food and sugar-sweetened beverages.

Results: After 2 years, compared with usual care, intervention participants had similar changes in BMI z-scores (-0.04 units; 95% CI -0.14, 0.06), television viewing (-0.20 h/d; -0.49 to 0.09) and intakes of fast food (-0.09 servings/week; -0.34 to 0.17) and sugar-sweetened beverages (-0.26 servings/day; -0.67 to 0.14).

Conclusion: High Five for Kids, a primarily clinical-based intervention, did not affect BMI z-scores or obesity-related behaviours after 2 years.

Keywords: Behaviours; childhood; intervention; obesity.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Beverages
  • Body Mass Index
  • Child
  • Child Behavior
  • Child, Preschool
  • Fast Foods
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Motivational Interviewing / methods*
  • Overweight / prevention & control*
  • Overweight / therapy
  • Pediatric Obesity / prevention & control*
  • Pediatric Obesity / therapy
  • Primary Health Care / methods*
  • Television