Proteomics Analysis with a Nano Random Forest Approach Reveals Novel Functional Interactions Regulated by SMC Complexes on Mitotic Chromosomes

Mol Cell Proteomics. 2016 Aug;15(8):2802-18. doi: 10.1074/mcp.M116.057885. Epub 2016 May 26.


Packaging of DNA into condensed chromosomes during mitosis is essential for the faithful segregation of the genome into daughter nuclei. Although the structure and composition of mitotic chromosomes have been studied for over 30 years, these aspects are yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we used stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture to compare the proteomes of mitotic chromosomes isolated from cell lines harboring conditional knockouts of members of the condensin (SMC2, CAP-H, CAP-D3), cohesin (Scc1/Rad21), and SMC5/6 (SMC5) complexes. Our analysis revealed that these complexes associate with chromosomes independently of each other, with the SMC5/6 complex showing no significant dependence on any other chromosomal proteins during mitosis. To identify subtle relationships between chromosomal proteins, we employed a nano Random Forest (nanoRF) approach to detect protein complexes and the relationships between them. Our nanoRF results suggested that as few as 113 of 5058 detected chromosomal proteins are functionally linked to chromosome structure and segregation. Furthermore, nanoRF data revealed 23 proteins that were not previously suspected to have functional interactions with complexes playing important roles in mitosis. Subsequent small-interfering-RNA-based validation and localization tracking by green fluorescent protein-tagging highlighted novel candidates that might play significant roles in mitotic progression.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adenosine Triphosphatases / genetics
  • Adenosine Triphosphatases / metabolism
  • Animals
  • Cell Culture Techniques
  • Cell Cycle Proteins / genetics*
  • Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism
  • Cell Line
  • Chickens
  • Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone / genetics
  • Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone / metabolism
  • Chromosomes / genetics*
  • Chromosomes / metabolism
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism
  • Isotope Labeling
  • Mitosis*
  • Multiprotein Complexes / genetics
  • Multiprotein Complexes / metabolism
  • Proteomics / methods*


  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Multiprotein Complexes
  • cohesins
  • condensin complexes
  • Adenosine Triphosphatases