Glutamate Delta-1 Receptor Regulates Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5 Signaling in the Hippocampus

Mol Pharmacol. 2016 Aug;90(2):96-105. doi: 10.1124/mol.116.104786. Epub 2016 May 26.


The delta family of ionotropic glutamate receptors consists of glutamate delta-1 (GluD1) and glutamate delta-2 receptors. We have previously shown that GluD1 knockout mice exhibit features of developmental delay, including impaired spine pruning and switch in the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit, which are relevant to autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders. Here, we identified a novel role of GluD1 in regulating metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) signaling in the hippocampus. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated colocalization of mGlu5 with GluD1 punctas in the hippocampus. Additionally, GluD1 protein coimmunoprecipitated with mGlu5 in the hippocampal membrane fraction, as well as when overexpressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells, demonstrating that GluD1 and mGlu5 may cooperate in a signaling complex. The interaction of mGlu5 with scaffold protein effector Homer, which regulates mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, was abnormal both under basal conditions and in response to mGlu1/5 agonist (RS)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) in GluD1 knockout mice. The basal levels of phosphorylated mTOR and protein kinase B, the signaling proteins downstream of mGlu5 activation, were higher in GluD1 knockout mice, and no further increase was induced by DHPG. We also observed higher basal protein translation and an absence of DHPG-induced increase in GluD1 knockout mice. In accordance with a role of mGlu5-mediated mTOR signaling in synaptic plasticity, DHPG-induced internalization of surface α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor subunits was impaired in the GluD1 knockout mice. These results demonstrate that GluD1 interacts with mGlu5, and loss of GluD1 impairs normal mGlu5 signaling potentially by dysregulating coupling to its effector. These studies identify a novel role of the enigmatic GluD1 subunit in hippocampal function.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Gene Deletion
  • Hippocampus / metabolism*
  • Immunoprecipitation
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Models, Biological
  • Phosphorylation
  • Protein Binding
  • Protein Isoforms / metabolism
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / metabolism
  • Receptor, Metabotropic Glutamate 5 / metabolism*
  • Receptors, Glutamate / metabolism*
  • Receptors, Metabotropic Glutamate / metabolism
  • Signal Transduction
  • TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism


  • Protein Isoforms
  • Receptor, Metabotropic Glutamate 5
  • Receptors, Glutamate
  • Receptors, Metabotropic Glutamate
  • glutamate receptor delta 1
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt
  • TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases