Chromosome Banding in Amphibia. XXXIV. Intrachromosomal Telomeric DNA Sequences in Anura

Cytogenet Genome Res. 2016;148(2-3):211-26. doi: 10.1159/000446298. Epub 2016 May 28.


The mitotic chromosomes of 4 anuran species were examined by various classical banding techniques and by fluorescence in situ hybridization using a (TTAGGG)n repeat. Large intrachromosomal telomeric sequences (ITSs) were demonstrated in differing numbers and chromosome locations. A detailed comparison of the present results with numerous published and unpublished data allowed a consistent classification of the various categories of large ITSs present in the genomes of anurans and other vertebrates. The classification takes into consideration the total numbers of large ITSs in the karyotypes, their chromosomal locations and their specific distribution patterns. A new category of large ITSs was recognized to exist in anuran species. It consists of large clusters of ITSs located in euchromatic chromosome segments, which is in clear contrast to the large ITSs in heterochromatic chromosome regions known in vertebrates. The origin of the different categories of large ITSs in heterochromatic and euchromatic chromosome regions, their mode of distribution in the karyotypes and evolutionary fixation in the genomes, as well as their cytological detection are discussed.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anura / genetics*
  • Base Sequence
  • Chromosome Banding*
  • In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence
  • Karyotype*
  • Telomere / genetics*