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Randomized Controlled Trial
. 2017 Jan;33(1):10.1002/dmrr.2828.
doi: 10.1002/dmrr.2828. Epub 2016 Jun 30.

Benefits of a Paleolithic Diet With and Without Supervised Exercise on Fat Mass, Insulin Sensitivity, and Glycemic Control: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes

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Free PMC article
Randomized Controlled Trial

Benefits of a Paleolithic Diet With and Without Supervised Exercise on Fat Mass, Insulin Sensitivity, and Glycemic Control: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes

Julia Otten et al. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Background: Means to reduce future risk for cardiovascular disease in subjects with type 2 diabetes are urgently needed.

Methods: Thirty-two patients with type 2 diabetes (age 59 ± 8 years) followed a Paleolithic diet for 12 weeks. Participants were randomized to either standard care exercise recommendations (PD) or 1-h supervised exercise sessions (aerobic exercise and resistance training) three times per week (PD-EX).

Results: For the within group analyses, fat mass decreased by 5.7 kg (IQR: -6.6, -4.1; p < 0.001) in the PD group and by 6.7 kg (-8.2, -5.3; p < 0.001) in the PD-EX group. Insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IR) improved by 45% in the PD (p < 0.001) and PD-EX (p < 0.001) groups. HbA1c decreased by 0.9% (-1.2, -0.6; p < 0.001) in the PD group and 1.1% (-1.7, -0.7; p < 0.01) in the PD-EX group. Leptin decreased by 62% (p < 0.001) in the PD group and 42% (p < 0.001) in the PD-EX group. Maximum oxygen uptake increased by 0.2 L/min (0.0, 0.3) in the PD-EX group, and remained unchanged in the PD group (p < 0.01 for the difference between intervention groups). Male participants decreased lean mass by 2.6 kg (-3.6, -1.3) in the PD group and by 1.2 kg (-1.3, 1.0) in the PD-EX group (p < 0.05 for the difference between intervention groups).

Conclusions: A Paleolithic diet improves fat mass and metabolic balance including insulin sensitivity, glycemic control, and leptin in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Supervised exercise training may not enhance the effects on these outcomes, but preserves lean mass in men and increases cardiovascular fitness. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01513798.

Keywords: Paleolithic diet; diet intervention; exercise; glycosylated haemoglobin A; insulin sensitivity; leptin; type 2 diabetes.

Conflict of interest statement

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare that there is no duality of interest associated with this manuscript.

Figures

Fig. 1
Fig. 1
CONSORT flow diagram.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2
Fat mass (a), insulin sensitivity (b), and cardiovascular fitness (c and d) during 12 weeks following either a Paleolithic diet with a supervised exercise program (PD-EX) or a Paleolithic diet combined with general exercise recommendations (PD). Boxes represent medians and IQRs, whiskers represent the most extreme values besides outliers, and filled circles represent outliers (>1.5 IQR); **p<0.01, ***p<0.001.

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