TLR4 induces CCR7-dependent monocytes transmigration through the blood-brain barrier

J Neuroimmunol. 2016 Jun 15:295-296:12-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2016.03.019. Epub 2016 Apr 6.


In this study, we examined whether bacterial pathogen-associated molecular patterns recognized by toll-like receptors (TLRs) can modify the CCR7-dependent migration of human monocytes. MonoMac-1 (MM-1) cells and freshly isolated human monocytes were cultivated in the presence of agonists for TLR4 (which senses lipopolysaccharides from gram-negative bacteria), TLR1/2 (which senses peptidoglycan from gram-positive bacteria), and TLR9 (which recognizes bacterial DNA rich in unmethylated CpG DNA). CCR7 mRNA transcription was measured using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and protein expression was examined using flow cytometry. CCR7 function was monitored using migration and transmigration assays in response to CCL19/CCL21, which are natural ligands for CCR7. Our results show that TLR4 strongly increases monocyte migratory capacity in response to CCL19 in chemotaxis and transmigration assays in a model that mimics the human blood-brain barrier, whereas TLR1/2 and 9 have no effect. Examination of monocyte migration in response to TLRs that are activated by bacterial components would contribute to understanding the excessive monocyte migration that characterizes the pathogenesis of bacterial infections and/or neuroinflammatory diseases.

Keywords: Blood-brain barrier; CCR7-dependent migration; Monocytes; TLR.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Analysis of Variance
  • Blood-Brain Barrier / physiology*
  • Cell Line, Transformed
  • Chemokine CCL19 / metabolism
  • Chemotaxis / drug effects
  • Chemotaxis / physiology*
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Flow Cytometry
  • Humans
  • In Vitro Techniques
  • Lipopeptides / pharmacology
  • Lipopolysaccharides / pharmacology
  • Monocytes / physiology*
  • Oligodeoxyribonucleotides / pharmacology
  • RNA, Messenger / metabolism
  • Receptors, CCR7 / agonists
  • Receptors, CCR7 / chemistry
  • Receptors, CCR7 / genetics
  • Receptors, CCR7 / metabolism*


  • CCL19 protein, human
  • Chemokine CCL19
  • Lipopeptides
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • Oligodeoxyribonucleotides
  • Pam(3)CSK(4) peptide
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Receptors, CCR7