The prevalence of allergic conditions has continuously increased in the last few decades in Westernized countries. A dysbiotic gut microbiome may play an important role in the development of allergic diseases. Genetic, environmental, and dietary factors may alter the commensal microbiota leading to inflammatory dysregulation of homeostasis. Murine and human studies have begun to elucidate the role of the microbiota in the pathogenesis of atopic diseases including asthma, atopic dermatitis, and food allergies. However, the role of the microbiome in most eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases (EGIDs) is not yet known. This review provides an overview of what is currently known about the development of tolerance from both molecular and clinical standpoints. We also look at the gut-specific microbiome and its role in atopic conditions with the hope of applying this knowledge to the understanding, prevention, and treatment of EGIDs, particularly EoE.
Keywords: asthma; atopic dermatitis; bacteria; eosinophil; eosinophilic esophagitis.
© 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.