Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in children with vocal fold nodules

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2016 Jun;85:5-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2016.03.017. Epub 2016 Mar 19.


Objectives: The aim of this case-control study was to investigate the symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with vocal fold nodules (VNs).

Methods: Study group (SG) included children between 4 and 12 years. As a control group (CG), children between 4 and 12 years without VNs were included in the study. Parents of the participants completed the Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised: Short Form (CPRS-RS) which was used to analyze the symptoms of ADHD.

Results: Forty-five children (30 boys and 15 girls) with VNs and 45 controls (30 boys and 15 girls) were enrolled in the study. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed that the CPRS-RS Hyperactivity and Oppositional Subscales were significantly higher in the SG than the CG (p < .05), after controlling the effects of age and gender.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest associations between VNs and hyperactivity and oppositional behaviors in children. Clinicians should be aware of ADHD symptoms in children with VNs.

Keywords: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; Dysphonia; Oppositional behaviors; Vocal fold nodule.

MeSH terms

  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / epidemiology*
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Dysphonia / epidemiology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Laryngeal Diseases / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Parents
  • Vocal Cords*
  • Voice Disorders / epidemiology