Objectives: The aim of this case-control study was to investigate the symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with vocal fold nodules (VNs).
Methods: Study group (SG) included children between 4 and 12 years. As a control group (CG), children between 4 and 12 years without VNs were included in the study. Parents of the participants completed the Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised: Short Form (CPRS-RS) which was used to analyze the symptoms of ADHD.
Results: Forty-five children (30 boys and 15 girls) with VNs and 45 controls (30 boys and 15 girls) were enrolled in the study. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed that the CPRS-RS Hyperactivity and Oppositional Subscales were significantly higher in the SG than the CG (p < .05), after controlling the effects of age and gender.
Conclusions: Our findings suggest associations between VNs and hyperactivity and oppositional behaviors in children. Clinicians should be aware of ADHD symptoms in children with VNs.
Keywords: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; Dysphonia; Oppositional behaviors; Vocal fold nodule.
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