Racial and Ethnic Disparities in the Incidence, Treatment, and Outcomes of Youth with Type 1 Diabetes

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2016 Jun;45(2):453-61. doi: 10.1016/j.ecl.2016.01.002. Epub 2016 Apr 7.


Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is the third most common chronic childhood disease in the United States. As more Hispanic and non-Hispanic black children are diagnosed with T1DM, racial and ethnic disparities in the treatment and outcomes of T1DM are increasing. This article reviews the increasing incidence and prevalence of T1DM in non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic children. In addition, the racial and ethnic disparities in diabetes treatment, such as blood glucose monitoring, insulin therapy, and continuous glucose monitoring, and outcomes, including glycemic control, diabetic ketoacidosis, severe hypoglycemia, retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, and diabetes-related mortality, are highlighted.

Keywords: Children; Disparities; Incidence; Outcomes; Treatment; Type 1 diabetes.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Black or African American
  • Blood Glucose
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / ethnology*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / therapy*
  • Health Status Disparities*
  • Hispanic or Latino
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Insulin
  • Treatment Outcome
  • United States
  • White People


  • Blood Glucose
  • Insulin