Outcomes of Extremely Preterm Infants Born to Insulin-Dependent Diabetic Mothers

Pediatrics. 2016 Jun;137(6):e20153424. doi: 10.1542/peds.2015-3424. Epub 2016 May 13.


Background and objective: Little is known about in-hospital morbidities and neurodevelopmental outcomes among extremely preterm infants born to women with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). We examined risks of mortality, in-hospital morbidities, and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18 to 22 months' corrected age between extremely preterm infants of women with insulin use before pregnancy (IBP), with insulin use started during pregnancy (IDP), and without IDDM.

Methods: Infants 22 to 28 weeks' gestation born or cared for at a Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network center (2006-2011) were studied. Regression models compared the association between maternal IDDM and timing of insulin use and the outcomes of the 3 groups.

Results: Of 10 781 infants, 536 (5%) were born to women with IDDM; 58% had IBP, and 36% had IDP. Infants of mothers with IBP had higher risks of necrotizing enterocolitis (adjusted relative risk [RR] = 1.55 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17-2.05]) and late-onset sepsis (adjusted RR = 1.26 [95% CI 1.07-1.48]) than infants of mothers without IDDM. There was some indication of higher in-hospital mortality risk among infants of mothers with IBP compared with those with IDP (adjusted RR = 1.33 [95% CI 1.00-1.79]). Among survivors evaluated at 18 to 22 months' corrected age, average head circumference z score was lower for infants of mothers with IBP compared with those without IDDM, but there were no differences in risk of neurodevelopmental impairment.

Conclusions: In this cohort of extremely preterm infants, infants of mothers with IBP had higher risks of necrotizing enterocolitis, sepsis, and small head circumference.

Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00063063 NCT00009633.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cohort Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / drug therapy*
  • Enterocolitis, Necrotizing / epidemiology*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Head / anatomy & histology*
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Extremely Premature* / growth & development
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Insulin / therapeutic use*
  • Male
  • Neurodevelopmental Disorders / epidemiology
  • Organ Size
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy in Diabetics / drug therapy*
  • Regression Analysis
  • Sepsis / epidemiology*


  • Insulin

Associated data

  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT00063063
  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT00009633

Grant support