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Review
. 2016 Sep;12(9):2232-9.
doi: 10.1080/21645515.2016.1179844. Epub 2016 May 31.

Dendritic Cell Vaccines: A Review of Recent Developments and Their Potential Pediatric Application

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Free PMC article
Review

Dendritic Cell Vaccines: A Review of Recent Developments and Their Potential Pediatric Application

Jennifer D Elster et al. Hum Vaccin Immunother. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

For many cancers the use of conventional chemotherapy has been maximized, and further intensification of chemotherapy generally results in excess toxicity with little long-term benefit for cure. Many tumors become resistant to chemotherapy, making the investigation of novel approaches such as immunotherapy of interest. Because the tumor microenvironment is known to promote immune tolerance and down regulate the body's natural defense mechanisms, modulating the immune system with the use of dendritic cell (DC) therapy is an attractive approach. Thousands of patients with diverse tumor types have been treated with DC vaccines. While antigen specific immune responses have been reported, the duration and magnitude of these responses are typically weak, and objective clinical responses have been limited. DC vaccine generation and administration is a multi-step process with opportunities for improvement in source of DC for vaccine, selection of target antigen, and boosting effector cell response via administration of vaccine adjuvant or concomitant pharmacologic immunomodulation. In this review we will discuss recent developments in each of these areas and highlight elements that could be moved into pediatric clinical trials.

Keywords: cancer immunotherapy; dendritic cell; dendritic cell vaccine; vaccine adjuvant.

Figures

Figure 1.
Figure 1.
Dendritic Cell Vaccine Generation. DCV generation and administration is a multi-step process. A cell source for DC must be selected and DC generated, target antigen must be selected and dendritic cells exposed to the antigen for maturation, and finally DCV must be administered which can be done with concurrent immune modulators or vaccine adjuvants.

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