Rapid selection for resistance to diamide insecticides in Plutella xylostella via specific amino acid polymorphisms in the ryanodine receptor

Neurotoxicology. 2017 May;60:224-233. doi: 10.1016/j.neuro.2016.05.012. Epub 2016 May 28.


Diamide insecticides, such as flubendiamide and chlorantraniliprole, are a new class of insecticide with a novel mode of action, selectively activating the insect ryanodine receptor (RyR). They are particularly active against lepidopteran pests of cruciferous vegetable crops, including the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. However, within a relatively short period following their commercialisation, a comparatively large number of control failures have been reported in the field. In this review we summarise the current body of knowledge regarding the molecular mechanisms of diamide resistance in P. xylostella. Resistant phenotypes collected from different countries can often be linked to specific target-site mutation(s) in the ryanodine receptors' transmembrane domain. Metabolic mechanisms of resistance have also been proposed. Rapid resistance development is probably a consequence of over-reliance on this one class of chemistry for diamondback moth control.

Keywords: Cruciferous crops; Diamides; Diamondback moth; Plutella xylostella; Ryanodine receptor.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acids / genetics
  • Animals
  • Diamide / pharmacology*
  • Insect Proteins / genetics*
  • Insect Proteins / metabolism
  • Insecticide Resistance*
  • Insecticides / pharmacology*
  • Moths / drug effects*
  • Moths / genetics
  • Polymorphism, Genetic
  • RNA, Messenger / metabolism
  • Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel / genetics*
  • Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel / metabolism


  • Amino Acids
  • Insect Proteins
  • Insecticides
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel
  • Diamide