Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most abundant genetic polymorphisms and are responsible for many genetic diseases and cancers. In general, SNPs detection is performed by a single probe system (SPS), in which a single probe specifically hybridizes to one target. However, with the use of this method it is hard to improve the hybridization specificity and single mismatched discrimination factors (DF). In addition, the multiprobe system (MPS) requires complex probe designs and introduces at least one auxiliary probe except for the probe complementary to the target, resulting in a complicated detection system. Faced with these difficulties, we perform the SNP detection using a d/l-tryptophan (Trp) guided DNA probe and regulate the DF of electrochemical DNA (E-DNA) sensors by molecular chirality. We show that the DF of the d-Trp incubated E-DNA sensor (d-sensor) is larger than that of the l-sensor. More importantly, we achieve the high specificity by coupling d-Trp and l-Trp incubated E-DNA sensors, and the median DF is 7.21. Furthermore, the specificity of SNP detection can be further improved by supersandwich assay, and the median DF is enlarged to 37.23, which is comparable to that obtained with a multiprobe detection system.
Keywords: chirality; electrochemical DNA sensor; single nucleotide polymorphism; supersandwich; tryptophan.