ROS, Cell Senescence, and Novel Molecular Mechanisms in Aging and Age-Related Diseases

Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2016;2016:3565127. doi: 10.1155/2016/3565127. Epub 2016 May 10.

Abstract

The aging process worsens the human body functions at multiple levels, thus causing its gradual decrease to resist stress, damage, and disease. Besides changes in gene expression and metabolic control, the aging rate has been associated with the production of high levels of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and/or Reactive Nitrosative Species (RNS). Specific increases of ROS level have been demonstrated as potentially critical for induction and maintenance of cell senescence process. Causal connection between ROS, aging, age-related pathologies, and cell senescence is studied intensely. Senescent cells have been proposed as a target for interventions to delay the aging and its related diseases or to improve the diseases treatment. Therapeutic interventions towards senescent cells might allow restoring the health and curing the diseases that share basal processes, rather than curing each disease in separate and symptomatic way. Here, we review observations on ROS ability of inducing cell senescence through novel mechanisms that underpin aging processes. Particular emphasis is addressed to the novel mechanisms of ROS involvement in epigenetic regulation of cell senescence and aging, with the aim to individuate specific pathways, which might promote healthy lifespan and improve aging.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Aging / genetics*
  • Aging / metabolism*
  • Cellular Senescence
  • Humans
  • Reactive Oxygen Species

Substances

  • Reactive Oxygen Species