Local auxin metabolism regulates environment-induced hypocotyl elongation

Nat Plants. 2016 Mar 21;2:16025. doi: 10.1038/nplants.2016.25.


A hallmark of plants is their adaptability of size and form in response to widely fluctuating environments. The metabolism and redistribution of the phytohormone auxin play pivotal roles in establishing active auxin gradients and resulting cellular differentiation. In Arabidopsis thaliana, cotyledons and leaves synthesize indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) from tryptophan through indole-3-pyruvic acid (3-IPA) in response to vegetational shade. This newly synthesized auxin moves to the hypocotyl where it induces elongation of hypocotyl cells. Here we show that loss of function of VAS2 (IAA-amido synthetase Gretchen Hagen 3 (GH3).17) leads to increases in free IAA at the expense of IAA-Glu (IAA-glutamate) in the hypocotyl epidermis. This active IAA elicits shade- and high temperature-induced hypocotyl elongation largely independently of 3-IPA-mediated IAA biosynthesis in cotyledons. Our results reveal an unexpected capacity of local auxin metabolism to modulate the homeostasis and spatial distribution of free auxin in specialized organs such as hypocotyls in response to shade and high temperature.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Arabidopsis / genetics
  • Arabidopsis / growth & development*
  • Arabidopsis / metabolism*
  • Biological Transport
  • Biosynthetic Pathways / genetics
  • Cotyledon / metabolism
  • Down-Regulation / genetics
  • Environment*
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
  • Genes, Plant
  • Glucuronidase / metabolism
  • Hypocotyl / growth & development*
  • Hypocotyl / metabolism*
  • Indoleacetic Acids / metabolism*
  • Mutation / genetics
  • Plant Epidermis / metabolism
  • RNA, Plant / genetics
  • RNA, Plant / metabolism
  • Temperature


  • Indoleacetic Acids
  • RNA, Plant
  • Glucuronidase