We focused on the antimicrobial effects of titanium dioxide (TiO2) after stopping ultraviolet (UV) irradiation as an adjunctive treatment for peri-implantitis in this study. The aim was to determine the continuous photocatalytic effects of TiO2 after UV irradiation and its antimicrobial activity against periodontal pathogen. The continuous photocatalytic effects of TiO2 after UV irradiation were determined by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy using TiO2 particles of various sizes with various UV irradiation times. In addition, antimicrobial activity against Porphyromonas gingivalis was investigated by quantitation of colony-forming units (CFUs). The results showed that the ESR signal ratio for the UV-irradiated TiO2 was significantly higher than that of the non-irradiated TiO2. UV-irradiated TiO2 significantly reduced the number of P. gingivalis when compared with non-irradiated controls. These results suggest that TiO2 has a continuous photocatalytic effect even after stopping UV irradiation and that it showed antimicrobial activity against periodontal pathogen.