Controlling the Editor: The Many Roles of RNA-Binding Proteins in Regulating A-to-I RNA Editing

Adv Exp Med Biol. 2016;907:189-213. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-29073-7_8.

Abstract

RNA editing is a cellular process used to expand and diversify the RNA transcripts produced from a generally immutable genome. In animals, the most prevalent type of RNA editing is adenosine (A) to inosine (I) deamination catalyzed by the ADAR family. Throughout development, A-to-I editing levels increase while ADAR expression is constant, suggesting cellular mechanisms to regulate A-to-I editing exist. Furthermore, in several disease states, ADAR expression levels are similar to the normal state, but A-to-I editing levels are altered. Therefore, understanding how these enzymes are regulated in normal tissues and misregulated in disease states is of profound importance. This chapter will both discuss how to identify A-to-I editing sites across the transcriptome and explore the mechanisms that regulate ADAR editing activity, with particular focus on the diverse types of RNA-binding proteins implicated in regulating A-to-I editing in vivo.

Keywords: ADARs; Inosine; RNA editing; RNA-binding proteins; Splicing.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adenosine / metabolism*
  • Adenosine Deaminase / physiology*
  • Anemia, Macrocytic / enzymology
  • Anemia, Macrocytic / genetics
  • Animals
  • Base Pairing
  • Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins / physiology
  • Chromosome Deletion
  • Chromosomes, Human, Pair 5 / enzymology
  • Chromosomes, Human, Pair 5 / genetics
  • Drosophila Proteins / physiology
  • Humans
  • Inosine / metabolism*
  • Mice
  • Nervous System Diseases / enzymology
  • Nervous System Diseases / genetics
  • Nucleic Acid Conformation
  • RNA Editing*
  • RNA Splicing
  • RNA, Double-Stranded / metabolism*
  • RNA-Binding Proteins / physiology*
  • Spliceosomes / physiology
  • Transcriptome

Substances

  • Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins
  • Drosophila Proteins
  • RNA, Double-Stranded
  • RNA-Binding Proteins
  • Inosine
  • Adenosine Deaminase
  • Adenosine

Supplementary concepts

  • Chromosome 5q Deletion Syndrome