Fragmentation of the medial coronoid process (FCP) is an uncommon cause of thoracic limb lameness in toy and small breed dogs. Arthroscopic findings and treatment remains poorly described. The objective of this study was to describe the arthroscopic findings and short-term outcome following arthroscopic treatment in toy and small breed dogs with FCP. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed. Arthroscopic findings were available from 13 elbows (12 dogs). Outcome data ≥4 wk postoperatively were available for nine elbows. Owner satisfaction scores were available for 10 elbows. Common preoperative findings included lameness, elbow pain, and imaging abnormalities consistent with FCP. Displaced FCP was the most common FCP lesion identified. Cartilage lesions at the medial coronoid process were identified in 92.3% of elbows (n = 12), with a median Outerbridge score of 4 (range 1-5). Concurrent cartilage lesions of the medial humeral condyle were identified in 76.9% of elbows (n = 10). Seven of nine elbows had full or acceptable function postoperatively. Median owner outcome satisfaction was 91% (range 10-100). FCP should be considered a cause of thoracic limb lameness in toy and small breed dogs. Arthroscopy can be safely and effectively used to diagnose and treat FCP in these breeds.