Purpose: The clinical introduction of (68)Ga-PSMA-11 ("HBED-CC") ligand targeting the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) has been regarded as a significant step forward in the diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa). In this study, we provide human dosimetry and data on optimal timing of PET imaging after injection.
Methods: Four patients with recurrent PCa were referred for (68)Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT. Whole-body PET/CTlow-dose scans were conducted at 5 min, and 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 h after injection of 152-198 MBq (68)Ga-PSMA-11. Organs of moderate to high uptake were used as source organs; their total activity was determined at all measured time points. Time-activity curves were created for each source organ as well as for the remainder. The radiation exposure of a (68)Ga-PSMA-11 PET was identified using the OLINDA-EXM software. In addition, tracer uptake was measured in 16 sites of metastases.
Results: The highest tracer uptake was observed in the kidneys, liver, upper large intestine, and the urinary bladder. Mean organ doses were: kidneys 0.262 ± 0.098 mGy/MBq, liver 0.031 ± 0.004 mGy/MBq, upper large intestine 0.054 ± 0.041 mGy/MBq, urinary bladder 0.13 ± 0.059 mGy/MBq. The calculated mean effective dose was 0.023 ± 0.004 mSv/MBq (=0.085 ± 0.015 rem/mCi). Most tumor lesions (n = 16) were visible at 3 h p.i., while at all other time points many were not qualitatively present (10/16 visible at 1 h p.i.).
Conclusions: The mean effective dose of a (68)Ga-PSMA-11 PET is 0.023 mSv/MBq. A 3-h delay after injection was optimal timing for (68)Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT in this patient cohort.
Keywords: Dosimetry; HBED-CC; PET/CT; PSMA-11; Prostate cancer; Prostate-specific membrane antigen.