Radiotherapy is one of the cornerstones for treatment of patients with cancer. Although advances in radiotherapy technology have considerably improved radiation delivery, potential adverse effects are still common. Postradiation changes to the mediastinum can include different structures such as the heart, great vessels, and esophagus. The purpose of the article was to illustrate the expected variety of changes to the mediastinum and adjacent lung resulting from external beam radiotherapy and radiotherapy-induced complications to the mediastinum and to discuss different radiotherapy delivery techniques.
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