Orbital exenteration was performed in 102 patients at the Mayo Clinic during the 20-year period from 1967 through 1986. The surgical procedure was performed for mucormycosis in one patient and for pain and deformity after a severe facial burn in another; in the remaining 100 patients, exenteration was used to treat a neoplastic disorder. Although 19 different neoplasms were encountered, squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and melanoma constituted 70% of the total. In 82 patients with no known residual tumor or metastases at operation, the 1-year survival rate was 88.6%, the 5-year rate was 56.8%, and the 5-year rate free of recurrence or metastases was 48.3%. In 18 patients with known residual tumor or metastases at exenteration, 55.0% were alive 1 year postoperatively, and the 5-year survival rate was 25.8%. Unusual findings in this series included two patients with metastatic basal cell carcinoma and one patient with a metastatic thyroid Hürthle cell carcinoma.